The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (R) went into effect in 1981. It defines sex-based discrimination as distinction, exclusion, or restriction on the basis of sex. CEDAW requires signatory states to affirmatively provide for equality in their domestic laws. States must also prohibit discrimination and ensure appropriate remedies when it occurs. CEDAW is monitored by the UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women.