Sistema Nacional de Estadística sobre Ejecución de la Pena, Dirección Nacional de Política Criminal en materia de Justicia y Legislación Penal (2019),

Caitlyn Scherr, Chasing Democracy: The Development and Acceptance of Jury Trials in Argentina, 47 U. Miami Inter-Am. L. Rev. 316, 316-353 (2016).

General Brief about Argentinian Justice System and the Fiscal Public Ministry, Secretary of Institutional Coordination, Office of the Attorney General,

Natali Daiana Chizik, The Implementation Of Trial By Jury In Argentina: The Analysis Of A Legal Transplant As A Method Of Reform, University of British Columbia (2020),

Eugene E. Bouley, The Federal Penitentiary Service of Argentina, 5 INT'l CRIM. Just. REV. 45 (1995).

Mximo Sozzo, Democratization, politics and punishment in Argentina, 18 Punishment & Soc'y 301 (2016).

United Nations Human Rights Committee, Universal Periodic Review (5th Cycle), Alternative Report by the Argentine Federal Republic Defender’s Office.

Edmundo Hendler, Lay Participation in Argentina: Old History, Recent Experience, 15 Sw. J. INT'l L. 1 (2008).

Julio E. Aparicio and Roberto P. Ortenzi, Prison policy, prison regime and prisoners’ rights in Argentina (Jun. 28, 2008).

Victim Participation in Criminal Law Proceedings: Survey of Domestic Practice for Application to International Crimes Prosecutions, REDRESS (Sep. 2015),

Argentina: New Restrictions on Early Release and Other Former Dispensations Accorded Violent Criminals, Library of Congress (Aug. 9, 2017),

The penitentiary system, Prison Insider,

David Gagne, Argentina to Expand Drug Treatment Program for Minor Crimes Nationwide, Insight Crime (May. 29, 2017),

Ministerio de Justicia Y Derechos Humanos (Oct. 18, 2018),



Sadiq Reza, Egypt, in Criminal Procedure: A Worldwide Study (2007).

Yasmin Omar and Mal El-Sadany, Probation as Compounded Punishment in Egypt, The Tahrir Institute for Middle East Policy (Apr. 10, 2019),

2020 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Egypt, Bureau of Democracy, Human rights and Labor (Mar. 30, 2021),

Press briefing note on Egypt, United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (Apr. 30, 2020), .

Waiting for you; 78 prisoners, including 35 built after the January Revolution “On the difficult conditions of prisoners in Egypt”, Anhiri (Apt. 11, 2021),



Jacqueline Hodgson & Laurene Soubise, Understanding the Sentencing Process in France, 45 CRIME & Just. 221 (2016).

Fabrice Guilbaud, La privitisation des prisons: entre marché et dogme sécuritaire (2011),



Setsuo Miyazawa, Citizen Participation in Criminal Trials in Japan: The Saiban-in System and Victim Participation in Japan in International Perspectives, 42 Int’l J. L. Crime & Just. 71, 71-82 (2014).

Arne F. Soldwedel, Testing Japan’s Convictions: The Lay Judge System and the Rights of Criminal Defendants, 41 Vanderbilt J. Transnational L. 1418, 1418-1474 (2008).

Jason R. Silva, Corrections in Japan, in The Encyclopedia of Corrections (2017).

David T. Johnson, Crime and Punishment in Contemporary Japan, 36 CRIME & Just. 371 (2007).

Criminal Justice in Japan: Structure and Organization of the Criminal Justice Administration, United Nations Asia and Far East Institute,

Correctional Institutes in Japan, Correction Bureau Ministry of Justice (1973),

Erik D. Herber, Japanese Sentencing Practices: Creating an Opportunity for “Formal” Paternalism, 2 Int’l J. Criminology and Sociological Theory 303, 303-313 (2009).

Yuji Shiroshita, Current Trends and Issues in Japanese Sentencing, 22 FED. Sent'g REP. 243 (2010).

Where is Japan located?, Country Reports,

An overview of the criminal law system in Japan, Government of Canada,                                                                

Legal Reports, Library of Congress,



Mohannad Walid Ismail Al Haddad, Procedural Actions Affecting Penal Order "Analytical Study in Jordanian Penalties Procedure Law", 18 Zarqa J. Research and Studies in Humanities (2019).

Rules of Penal Trials Code (1961),$FILE/Jordan%20-%20Code%20of%20Criminal%20Procedure.pdf.

Preliminary provisions: Public Prosecution and civil Action, The Criminal Procedures Law (1961),  

Hassan Muhammad Al-Jokhadar, The Release of Good Conduct in Jordanian Legislation and Al-Warrikat, 18 Al Balqa Journal for Research and Studies 151, 151-210 (2015).

Structure of the Public Prosecution Office in Jordan, Norwegian Centre for Human Rights (Jan. 7, 2022),

Replacing freedom-depriving punishments with community service, Jafra News,


 New Zealand

Sarah Mikva Pfander, Evaluating New Zealand’s restorative promise: the impact of legislative design on the practice of restorative justice, 15 Kōtuitui: New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online 170, 170-185 (2020).

Colin Gavaghan, Jeanne Snelling, and John McMillan, Better and Better and Better? A Legal and Ethical Analysis of Preventive Detention in New Zealand (2014),

Sentencing decisions, Courts of New Zealand,

Types of Sentences, Ara Poutama Aotearoa Department of Corrections,

Parole Process, New Zealand Parole Board,

New Zealand Parole Board, Home page,

Criminal Courts, Community Law Manual Online,

About the Adult Diversion Scheme, Police,

Gabrielle Maxwell et al., Achieving The Diversion And Decarceration of Young Offenders in New Zealand, Ministry of Social Development,

Going to Court – Sentencing, Justice,,date%20of%20your%20sentencing%20hearing.

 Victims Rights Act 2002, (N.Z.).

Summary of victims’ rights, Community Law Manual Online,

Rikha Sharma Rani, New Zealand Tries a Different Kind of Private Prison, Bloomberg (Aug. 31, 2017),,and%20is%20the%20most%20restrictive. 


Nordic Countries

Per-Olof H. Wikstrom and Lars Dolmen, World Factbook of Criminal Justice Systems, National Council for Crime Prevention Sweden,

Information On Criminal Proceedings and Defense Rights in Sweden, Fair Trials International (Feb. 2015),

Ville Hinkkenen & Tapio Lappi-Seppala, Sentencing Theory, Policy, and Research in the Nordic Countries, 40 CRIME & Just. 349 (2011).

Bernard Michael Ortwein II, The Swedish Legal System: An Introduction, 13 Ind. Int’l & Comp. L. Rev. 405, 405-445 (2003).

Marcelo F. Aebi and Mélanie M. Tiago, Space I-2020, Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics (2021),

Josef Zila, Sanctioning Powers of the Swedish Public Prosecution Service and Policy, 45 Criminal Law, 397-406 (2009).

Josefin Hedstrom, The American and Swedish Criminal Justice System: A Comparative Study (May., 2018), (Master Thesis, East Tennessee State University).

Kerstin Braun, Victim Participation Rights: Variation Across Criminal Justice Systems (2019),


South Africa

Michael Tonry, Differences in National Sentencing Systems and the Differences They Make, 45 CRIME & Just. 1 (2016).

Christopher M. Alexander, Indeterminate Sentencing: An Analysis of Sentencing in America, 70 S. CAL. L. REV. 1717 (1997).

Lukas Muntingh, Alternative Sentencing in South Africa: An Update, in Beyond Retribution – Prospects for Restorative Justice in South Africa, 105-119 (2005).

Catherine Wood, Diversion in South Africa – A review of policy and practice, 1990-2003, Institute for Security Studies (Oct. 1, 2003),

Julian V. Roberts & Andrew Ashworth, The Evolution of Sentencing Policy and Practice in England and Wales, 2003-2015, 45 CRIME & Just. 307 (2016).

Indefinite imprisonment in South Africa – The difference between life and indefinite imprisonment, Africa Criminal Justice Reform (Sep. 1, 2018),

Vincent Isaac Jameson, Structuring the exercising of sentencing discretion in South African criminal courts (2018), (LL.D Thesis, North-West University),

D P Van Der Merwe, Sentencing in South Africa, 1992 J. S. AFR. L. 182 (1992).

GJ Lidovho, Parole boards in South Africa: on the road to extinction? A comparative perspective, 36 Institute of Foreign and Comparative Law 365, 365-385 (2003).

Esther Steyn, Plea-Bargaining in South Africa: Current Concerns and Future Prospects, 20 S. AFR. J. CRIM. Just. 206 (2007).

Bianca A. Poindexter, The War on Crime Increases the Time: Sentencing Policies in the United States and South Africa, 22 LOY. L.A. INT'l & COMP. L. REV. 375 (2000).

Sentencing Guidelines, The Law Library of Congress, Global Legal Research Center (Apr. 2014),

Annual Report 2019/2020, Department of Correctional Services (2020),

PG du Toit and GM Ferreira, Reasons for Prosecutorial Decisions, 18 Potchefstroom Electronic L. J. 1507, 1507 – 1526 (2015).

S. S. Terblanche & Julian V. Roberts, Sentencing in South Africa: Lacking in Principle but Delivering Justice, 18 S. AFR. J. CRIM. Just. 187 (2005).

Jamil D. Mujuzi, Unpacking the Law and Practice Relating to Parole in South Africa, 14 Potchefstroom Electronic L. J 204, 204-228 (Jan. 2011).

Mandatory Sentences of Imprisonment in Common Law Jurisdictions: Some Representative Models, Department of Justice,

What is Diversion?, Western Cape Government,

South Africa, Prison Insider,

Factsheet: The state of South Africa’s prisons, Africa Check (Jul. 18, 2017),


United States

Alternatives to Incarceration in a Nutshell, FAMM,

Population Statistics, Federal Bureau of Prisons,

E. Ann Carson, Prisoners in 2019, Bureau of Justice Statistics (Oct. 2020),

Victims’ Pretrial Release Rights and Protections, NCSL (May. 12, 2015),

State Policies and Legislation, Center for Sentencing Initiatives,

Jorge Renaud, Grading the parole release systems of all 50 states, Prison Policy Initiative (Feb. 26, 2019),


B. J. George Jr., Comparative Sentencing Techniques, 23 FED. PROBATION 27 (1959).

Ram Subramanian and Alison Shames, Sentencing and Prison Practices in Germany and the Netherlands: Implications for the United States, Center on Sentencing and Corrections (Oct. 2013),

Hans-Jorg Albrecht, Sentencing in Germany: Explaining Long-Term Stability in the Structure of Criminal Sanctions and Sentencing, 76 LAW & CONTEMP. Probs. 211 (2013).

International Legal Systems – An Introduction, United States Department of Justice,

Daniel Fiedler, Sentencing Guidelines in South Korea: Lessons from the American Experience, 10 J. KOREAN L. 111 (2010).

Alejandro Ponce et al., Mexico’s New Criminal Justice System: Substantial Progress and Persistent Challenges, World Justice Project Mexico,

Josine Junger-Tas, Sentencing in the Netherlands: Context and Policy, 7 FED. Sent'g REP. 293 (1995).

Alison Lawrence, Making Sense of Sentencing: State Systems and Policies, National Conference of State Legislatures (Jun. 2015),